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Extina (Ketoconazole)

Extina is an imidazole antifungal agent used in the prevention and treatment of a variety of fungal infections. It functions by preventing the synthesis of ergosterol, the fungal equivalent of cholesterol, thereby increasing membrane fluidity and preventing growth of the fungus. Extina was first approved in an oral formulation for systemic use by the FDA in 1981. At this time it was considered a significant improvement over previous antifungals, miconazole and clotrimazole, due to its broad spectrum and good absorption. However, it was discovered that Extina produces frequent gastrointestinal side effects and dose-related hepatitis. These effects combined with waning efficacy led to its eventual replacement by triazole agents, fluconazole, itraconazole, [voraconazole], and posaconazole. Extina and its predecessor clotrimazole continue to be used in topical formulations.

Other names for this medication:
Ketoconazole, Nizoral, Akorazol, Arcolan, Arcolane, Asquam, Biogel, Clarazole, Conazol, Daktagold, Daktarin, Dezor, Diazon, Dikoven, Eumicel, Extina, Funginoc, Fungoral, Ilgem, Kenazol, Kenazole, Ketazol, Ketokonazol, Ketolef, Ketovid, Ketozal, Liondox, Lizovag, Micoral, Micosin, Muzoral, Mycoderm, Noell, Orifungal, Oronazol, Panfungol, Perative, Phytoral, Pristinex, Tiniazol, Tinuvin, Xolegel, Yucomy, Zoloral,

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Extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun NH-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation, c-fos mRNA expression, and activator protein-1 (AP-1) DNA binding activity stimulated by TGF-beta1 were completely suppressed by the ERK kinase (MEK) inhibitors. Maternal smoking and alcohol consumption as determinants of birth weight in an unselected study population. II.N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN) and n-isopropyl-alpha-(2-methyl-hydrazino)-p-toluamide (Natulan), two carcinogenic compounds with specific mutagenicity problems.

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Emerging and re-emerging vector-borne diseases in the Caribbean region. Efficient adenovirus-mediated transfer of a human minidystrophin gene to skeletal muscle of mdx mice. The patients with partial epilepsy had significantly prolonged latency of VEP component N3. Of these, 35 patients were treated with vinorelbine-based regimens as first-line chemotherapy, and 36 patients were treated with vinorelbine-based regimens as second-line or more-line therapy. Role of interleukin 2 and a serum suppressive factor on the induction of activated killer cells cytotoxic for autologous human melanoma cells.

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